Disputants make submissions to the expert on the matters in dispute but are not bound by the expert's opinion. They may find it useful in their negotiations. The expert may be given one issue only, such as the valuation of a property at a particular date, or the entire dispute to consider, such as who is likely to win or lose and what any damages might be.
This involves a neutral person investigating and reporting upon the facts to the disputants, who may then be able to resolve their dispute, but who are not necessarily bound by the findings. This process can be very efficient where, for example, the cause of an accident needs to be ascertained before responsibility can be apportioned.